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Natural populations

Schoenoplectus validus is widely distributed in populations across the eastern states, to south-east corner of South Australia. Frequently found in coastal and sub-coastal wetlands, it also is adapted to persist in many scattered wetlands in inland areas with un-predictable climatic conditions. It grows along creeks, lakes and open swamps, in fresh and brackish water [43]. There is a disjunct population in south-west Western Australia, where it grows in swamps and estuaries [44]. Classified as rare in Tasmania, it occurs on King and Flinders Island and in the Midlands [52].  There are no recognised variants for this species.

Flowering and seeds

This plant flowers and sets seed in spring–summer. In general, wetland sedges and rushes can be propagated using the bog method [107].

Cultivation and uses

Schoenoplectus validus shows good establishment and growth in constructed wetlands [65]. It is a valuable habitat plant for water birds.

Key descriptors:

Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 200-1800 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer, uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 9-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 21-38 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: -2-12 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): greater than 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: metres 0-1150 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be drought sensitive
Fire: killed by damaging fire does not regenerate foliage
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Soil factors
Texture: loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage: poorly to imperfectly drained
Tolerance of adverse soils
Soil waterlogging tolerance: up to or greater than 2 months
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen groundcover
Longevity: short-lived less than 15 years
Growth rate: fast
Root system: forms root suckers
Shade tolerance: grows best in full sunlight

References

[43] National Herbarium of New South Wales (2008) PlantNET - Flora of New South Wales. (Online resource) http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/floraonline.htm (Accessed: February 2008).

[44] Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Environment and Conservation (2008) FloraBase: the Western Australian flora. (Online resource) http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/ (Accessed: February 2008).

[52] Lazarus E, Lawrence N, Potts W (2003) Threatened Flora of Tasmania. Threatened Species Unit DPIWE, Tasmania. (Online resource) http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/ThreatenedFloraCD/ (Accessed: September 2007).

[65] Tanner CC (1996) Plants for constructed wetland treatment systems - A comparison of the growth and nutrient uptake of eight emergent species. Ecological Engineering 7, pp 59-83.

[107] Romanski N (1998) Planting wetlands and dams – a practical guide to wetland design, construction and propagation. UNSW Press, Sydney.

Internet links

PlantNet NSW Flora Online – species description & distribution: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Schoenoplectus~validus 

FloraBase Western Australia Flora Online – species description & distribution: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/969

Tasmanian Threatened Species Database: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/ThreatenedFloraCD/Schoenoplectus%20validus.pdf

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