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flowers (white form), fruit

flowers (pink form)

Natural populations

Hakea sericea grows in the heath and dry eucalypt forest along the coast and adjacent ranges from south-east Queensland to south-eastern New South Wales; common on sandstone [42, 43]. It is recorded as naturalised weed in Victoria and South Australia and widely cultivated in countries such as New Zealand, Spain and South Africa [16, 46] where it is regarded as a weed [124].

Flowering and seeds

Plants of Hakea sericea flower from July to October [42]. Seritonus fruit held on plant at maturity until ecological event such as fire causes the release of winged seeds. Seeds are easy to germinate, with no pre-treatment required.

Cultivation and uses

Widely used as an ornamental for its showy winter flowers, it is regarded as weedy outside of its natural distribution [48].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 650-2500 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer or uniform
Mean annual temperature: 10-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 22-29 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: -1-7 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): greater than 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 10-1000 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm)
Drainage: well-drained
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen shrub less than 2 m tall
Longevity: short-lived less than 15 years
Root system: shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for sandy sites
Uses
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Potentially undesirable attributes
Weediness: high potential based on its biology

References

[16] Walsh NG, Entwisle TJ (1994 - 1999) .Flora of Victoria. Volume 2 - 4, Inkata Press, Melbourne.

 [42] Flora of Australia (1982 to 2007). Volumes 2 to 47, CSIRO Publishing and the Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

 [43] National Herbarium of New South Wales (2008). PlantNET - Flora of New South Wales. (Online  http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/floraonline.htm Accessed: February 2008)

 [46] State Herbarium of South Australia (2007). Electronic Flora of South Australia: flora fact sheets. (Online http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/factsheets.html Accessed: February 2008).

 [48] Growing Australian Plants - Australian National Botanic Gardens and National Herbarium (2008). (Online  http://www.cpbr.gov.au/gnp/index.html Accessed: February 2008).

 [124] Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (2007). Multi-level decision support for a strategic cooperative approach to the management of alien invasive plants in South Africa. (Online http://fred.csir.co.za/plants/global/continen/africa/safrica/sppdb/genus/hak/hseric00.htm Accessed: February 2008)

Internet links

Australian National Botanic Gardens – Growing Australian Plants: http://www.cpbr.gov.au/gnp/gnp3/hakea-sericea.html

PlantNet NSW Flora Online – species description & distribution: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Hakea~sericea

South Australia Flora Online – species description & distribution: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/texhtml.cgi?form=speciesfacts&family=Proteaceae&genus=Hakea&species=sericea

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