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Natural populations

Hakea scoparia is a shrub or small tree 2-3 m tall or sometimes taller. It occurs throughout the wheatbelt, in south-western Western Australia. It grows in tall open mallee forest and shrubland, on the sandy plains and occasionally in hills or granite outcrops. Two subspecies are recognised [42]:

Flowering and seeds

Subsp. scoparia flowers May to September and subsp. trycherica flowers April to July [42]. Seritonus fruit held on plant at maturity until ecological event such as fire causes the release of winged seeds. The fruits often require up to a year to mature after flowering [100]. Seed has been successfully germinated at 15, 20 and 25 degrees with an 8/16 photoperiod of light/dark; no pretreatment required [90]. The average time to germination is 25 days [100].

Cultivation and uses

Hakea scoparia is mainly grown as a garden ornamental.

Key descriptors:
Subsp. scoparia:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 300-400 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: winter
Mean annual temperature: 11-25 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 34-35 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 6-6 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): greater than 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 300-400 metres
Soil factors
Texture:
 clay loam, light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen shrub less than 2 m tall or shrub or small tree less than 5 m tall
Uses
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds


Subsp. trycherica:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 450-450 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: winter
Mean annual temperature: 9-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 26-27 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 5-5 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): 1. frost free or more or less frost free
Altitude: 150-350 metres
Soil factors
Texture: loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen shrub less than 2 m tall or shrub or small tree less than 5 m tall
Uses
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds

References

[42] Flora of Australia (1982 to 2007) Volumes 2 to 47, CSIRO Publishing and the Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

[90] Flynn S, Turner RM, Dickie JB (2004) Seed Information Database (Release 7.0, October 2006). (Online database) http://www.kew.org/data/sid/ (Accessed: July 2007).

[100] Sweedman L, Merritt D (eds) (2006) Australian Seeds: a guide to their collection, identification and biology. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria.

Internet links

Australian Journal of Botany: http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/BT9960527.htm

FloraBase Western Australia Flora Online – species description & distribution: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/2204; http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/19131;http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/18070

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