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Northam, WA

young tree Tincurrin, WA

buds

Natural populations

Eucalyptus wandoo is endemic to the southwest of Western Australia and has two subspecies [1,2]:

A closely related and very similar species E. capillosa occurs further inland [1, 2].

Flowering and seeds

This species flowers during March to April [1,3]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following autumn. There are about 275 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 10 days if grown at 15-20°C with no pretreatment required [3].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus wandoo is an attractive medium-sized tree with smooth white bark. While relatively slow growing, it is drought tolerant, has excellent ornamental attributes and produces excellent honey. It is also considered moderately salt tolerant with potential for rehabilitation of saline soils [4].   Eucalyptus wandoo produces one of the toughest and most durable woods of any eucalypt [1]. In the past it was used for railway sleepers, poles, flooring and for heavy and light construction. The bark was also formerly harvested as a commercial source of tannin. Natural stands of this species are now valued for their watershed protection [1] and in the past were a major source of honey [5].

Key descriptors:
Subsp. wandoo:
Climate parameters
Rainfall distribution pattern: winter
Mean annual rainfall: 400-700 mm
Mean annual temperature: 15-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 30-35 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 4-6 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 50-300 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, duplex texture contrast soils, light to medium clay (35-50% clay) or loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Soil pH reaction: 1. acidic (less than 6.5) or 2. neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm) or moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage: well-drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: clayey
Salinity: moderate (-8 dS m-1) or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: tree 10-20 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: slow to moderate
Coppicing ability: lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep or shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate
Uses
Potential farm use: good ornamental attributes, shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture or high tannin content in bark
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), flooring (including parquetry), heavy construction, high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, panelling, poles (building, transmission, piling), posts (including fencing), railway sleepers, speciality timber for quality furniture, termite resistant
Potentially undesirable attributes
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants


Subsp. pulverea:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 400-600 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: winter
Mean annual temperature: 18-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 32-35 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 5-6 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 100-300 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, duplex texture contrast soils, light to medium clay (35-50% clay) or loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm) or moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage: well-drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: clayey
Salinity: moderate (-8 dS m-1) or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 5-10 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Growth rate: slow
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: fast or slow
Coppicing ability: lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep or shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate
Uses
Potential farm use: shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture
Urban use: suitable as a screen or hedge
Potentially undesirable attributes
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. 

[3] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[4] Marcar NE, Crawford DF (2004) Trees for Saline Landscapes. RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra.

[5] Chippendale GM (1973) Eucalypts of the Western Australian Goldfields (and the Adjacent Wheatbelt). (AGPS: Canberra).

Internet links

Victorian Department of Primary Industry: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/ [Search site as several documents may relate to this species]

Western Australia Department of Agriculture and Food: http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/content/lwe/vegt/trees/fs03800.pdf

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