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Tidbinbilla, ACT

Brindabella, ACT

Natural populations

Eucalyptus viminalis comprises three main subspecies [1,2]:

A fourth undescribed taxon - subsp. ' hentyensis' - occurs in an isolated stand in western Tasmania [2].

Flowering and seeds

This species flowers during summer to autumn [1,3,4]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following summer. There are about 300 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 7 days if grown at 25°C with no pretreatment required [4].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus viminalis is usually a relatively fast growing species suitable for growing on a range sites from highlands to coastal lowlands. There is considerable potential to cultivate this species well beyond its natural range [5] and it is considered slightly salt tolerant [6]. This is a highly variable species in which has substantial provenance variation [7]. Its wood is not very strong, nor durable but in the past has been used for building framing, flooring, panelling, joinery and pulpwood [1].

Key descriptors:
Subsp. cygnetensis:
Climate parameters

Mean annual rainfall: 650-1000 mm
Mean annual temperature: 8-15 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 25-27 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 4-6 °C
Altitude: 5-150 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Wind: tolerates salt-laden coastal winds
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: sand
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall
Erosion control potential: excellent for sandy sites
Windbreak potential: tolerates salty coastal winds

Subsp. pryoriana:
Climate parameters

Mean annual rainfall: 400-1200 mm
Mean annual temperature: 9-15 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 21-27 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 4-7 °C
Altitude: 5-450 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Wind: tolerates salt-laden coastal winds
Soil factors
Texture: loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: sand
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall
Erosion control potential: excellent for sandy sites
Windbreak potential: tolerates salty coastal winds

Subsp. viminalis:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 500-1700 mm
Mean annual temperature: 4-17 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 18-30 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: -3-7 °C
Altitude: 5-1300 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range or tolerates heavy frosts colder than -5°C
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay), light to medium clay (35-50% clay) or loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in texture: clayey
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall, tree > 20 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-70 m tall
Uses
Wood products: pulpwood (wood chips for paper pulp), solid wood products, flooring (including parquetry), heavy construction, light construction, panelling, speciality timber for quality furniture


Descriptors in common
:
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Soil factors
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage: well-drained or seasonally waterlogged
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils or drainage may be sluggish at times
Biological traits under cultivation
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: moderate to fast
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding; lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep
Shade tolerance: grows best in full sunlight
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate to high
Uses
Potential farm use: shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Clemson A (1985) Honey and Pollen Flora. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

[4] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[5] Jovanovic T, Booth TH (2002) Improved species climatic profiles A report for the RIRDC/L&W Australia/FWPRDC/ MDBC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program. RIRDC Publication No 02/095, Canberra.

[6] Marcar NE, Crawford DF (2004) Trees for Saline Landscapes. RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra.

[7] Eldridge K, Davidson J, Harwood C, Wyk Gv (1993) Eucalypt Domestication and Breeding. Clarendon, Oxford.

Internet links

Australian National Botanic Gardens: http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/cold-climate/eucalypts-cold-climates.html

eFloraSA Electronic Flora of South Australia: http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/texhtml.cgi?form=speciesfacts&family=&genus=eucalyptus&species=viminalis&iname=&submit=Search

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Eucalyptus~viminalis

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