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Mt Jackson, WA

Manmanning, WA

Norseman, WA

Natural populations

Eucalyptus salubris is widespread in the Avon Wheatbelt and Coolgardie regions of southwest Western Australia, extending from Mullewa in the north to as far east as Laverton and the plains north of Mt Ragged [1,2]. It is usually a small to medium-sized tree 8–15 m. The trunks and upper limbs are usually spirally fluted, particularly in younger trees. The main habitat of E. salubris is on plains or diffuse valleys, growing on sandy loams or clay loams, often in pure stands.

Flowering and seeds

This species flowers during September to December [1,3]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following spring and abundant quantities are often present on this species. There are about 400 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 10 days if grown at 15-20°C with no pretreatment required [3].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus salubris is an attractive, non-lignotuberous tree which has fluted trunks and upper limbs and smooth, copper-coloured bark. It is a highly ornamental eucalypt suitable for cultivation in semi-arid climates on alkaline clay loams [4]. In the past, wood from natural stands of this species was formerly used as firewood and was considered useful for poles, fence posts, minor building construction and mining timber [1]. The grain makes the wood attractive for furniture, craftwood, veneer and recently it has been used to make head joints for flutes. The bark of E. salubris has relatively high tannin content (18-20%) and its flowers produce abundant pollen and honey flow for apiculture [5].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 230-400 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 15-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 31-37 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 4-7 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): 2. up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 100-350 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant or known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: killed by damaging fire does not regenerate foliage
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay), light to medium clay (35-50% clay) or loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Soil pH reaction: neutral (6.5-7.5) or alkaline (greater than 7.5)
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: alkalinity
Extremes in texture: clayey
Salinity: moderate (-8 dS m-1) or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: moderate or slow
Root system: moderate to deep
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate
Uses
Potential farm use: good for fence posts, good ornamental attributes or shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture or high tannin content in bark
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant, ideal maintenance free street tree or suitable as a screen or hedge
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), flooring (including parquetry), high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, light construction, panelling, poles (building, transmission, piling), posts (including fencing), speciality timber for quality furniture, speciality wood valued for musical instruments
Potentially undesirable attributes
Fire sensitivity: killed by severe fires (seeder)

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[4] McArthur MW (1991) Reference soils of south-western Australia. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia on behalf of the Australian Society of Soil Science Incorporated (W.W. Branch).

[5] Chippendale GM (1973) Eucalypts of the Western Australian Goldfields (and the Adjacent Wheatbelt). (AGPS: Canberra).

Internet links

FloraBase Western Australian Herbarium: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/search/quick?PHPSESSID=a37d2be3af60909781af5d759edb6cd0&q= eucalyptus+salubris

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