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Windarling, WA

Bungwalbin, WA

Kalgoorlie, WA

Crown branches

Natural populations

Woodlands of E. salmonophloia are renowned for their attractive appearance and are endemic to the Avon Wheatbelt and Coolgardie regions of south west Western Australia [1,3]. Most western occurrences are in remnant vegetation, extending from the York and Northam areas, south to the Jerramungup area. Eastern occurrences less disturbed and extend as far east as Cundeelee east of Kalgoorlie, north to the Mt Gibson area and south to Salmon Gums. Eucalyptus salmonophloia is easily the tallest tree across its distribution. It may attain up to 30 m in height in areas where mean the mean annual rainfall may be as low as 250 mm. Its habitat is mainly along broad diffuse valleys, usually on alkaline loams.

Flowering and seeds

Eucalyptus salmonophloia flowers during summer [1,3]. Seed capsules usually persist on trees until at least the following summer. There are about 600 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 10 days if grown at 15-20°C with no pretreatment required [3].

Cultivation and uses

This species has potential for the remediation of sites with alkaline, loamy soils but is considered a relatively slow growing, shallow-rooted species. It is best adapted to alkaline loams [4] and a semi-arid climate. Protection from browsing by animals is required for successful establishment [5]. In the past, the wood of this species was used in the mining industry as a source of timber and fuelwood. The heartwood is fine-textured, dense and reddish to dark red-brown and has considerable potential for use in high value furniture, flooring, panelling and craftwood [1,5]. Honey flow for apiculture is reported from December to March [6].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 250-500 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 15-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 30-36 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 4-7 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 150-400 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: killed by damaging fire does not regenerate foliage
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, duplex texture contrast soils, light to medium clay (35-50% clay) or loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Soil pH reaction: alkaline (greater than 7.5)
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: alkalinity
Salinity: moderate (-8 dS m-1), nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree to 30 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: moderate or slow
Root system: shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate to high
Uses
Potential farm use: good for fence posts, good ornamental attributes, shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), flooring (including parquetry), heavy construction, high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, panelling, posts (including fencing), railway sleepers, speciality timber for quality furniture, speciality wood valued for musical instruments
Potentially undesirable attributes
Fire sensitivity: killed by severe fires (seeder)
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants
Susceptibility to disease or predation: susceptible to stem girdling by parrots
Foliage: highly susceptible to browsing by animals

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[4] McArthur MW (1991) 'Reference soils of south-western Australia.' Department of Agriculture, Western Australia on behalf of the Australian Society of Soil Science Incorporated (W.W. Branch).

[5] Emmott T (no date) Salmon Gum (Eucalyptus salmonophloia) use in Farm Forestry. Greening Australia (WA). Online at: http://live.greeningaustralia.org.au/NR/rdonlyres/60A18BA6-C52A-4E3F-A0D1-4138E007770F/183/SalmonGum.pdf Accessed March 2008.

[6] Chippendale GM (1973) Eucalypts of the Western Australian Goldfields (and the Adjacent Wheatbelt). (AGPS: Canberra).

Internet links

Geening Australia website: http://live.greeningaustralia.org.au/NR/rdonlyres/60A18BA6-C52A-4E3F-A0D1-4138E007770F/183/SalmonGum.pdf

Victorian Department of Primary Industry: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/ [Search site as several documents may relate to this species.]

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