Chichester SF, NSW

Styx River SF, NSW

Knorrit SF, NSW

Natural populations

This species extends north from near Batemans Bay on the south coast of New South Wales to north of Brisbane in Queensland [1,2]. Scattered disjunct populations occur in the Marybourough region in Queensland. This species can attain 30–65 m in height and occurs on flats or lower slopes of deep, fertile valleys, often fringing rainforest gullies. Soils are well-drained, deep, loams of alluvial or volcanic origin.

Flowering and seeds

This species flowers mainly during January to April [1,3]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following flowering event. There are about 500 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 5 days if grown at 25°C with no pretreatment required [3].

Cultivation and uses

On favourable sites E. saligna is capable of rapid early growth and has potential as a farm forestry species for high value timber production [5]. The species is frost tolerant, moderately drought tolerant and considered slightly salt tolerant [6]. The wood of E. saligna is harvested from natural stands and used for general construction, flooring, cladding, panelling, veneer, poles, furniture and heavy engineering construction [1]. The pink to reddish heartwood is usually straight-grained and relatively easy to work, fix, dress and finish. Provenance variation in this species has been documented in a range of sources, including significant within and between provenance variation in growth performance, form and frost tolerance [7]. The Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia has also presented information on provenance variation in this species [5]. There is considerable potential to cultivate this species well beyond its natural range [8].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 700-2300 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer or uniform
Mean annual temperature: 10-22 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 23-34 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: -1-17 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): frost free or more or less frost free, up to 20 or greater than 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C) or severe or heavy (greater than -5°C)
Altitude: 0-1100 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be drought sensitive or known to be moderately drought tolerant
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range or tolerates heavy frosts colder than -5°C
Wind: tolerates salt-laden coastal winds
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay), light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage: 1. well-drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: clayey
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 15-65 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: fast
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding; lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Windbreak potential: tolerates salty coastal winds
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: high
Potential farm use: good for fence posts, good ornamental attributes, shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Wood products: pulpwood (wood chips for paper pulp), boxes, crates, flooring (including parquetry), heavy construction, high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, light construction, panelling, poles (building, transmission, piling), posts (including fencing), speciality timber for quality furniture, medium density fibreboard


[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Clemson A (1985) Honey and Pollen Flora. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

[4] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at  Accessed March 2008]

[5] Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food:

[6] Marcar NE, Crawford DF (2004) Trees for Saline Landscapes. RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra.

[7] Eldridge K, Davidson J, Harwood C, Wyk Gv (1993) Eucalypt domestication and breeding. Clarendon, Oxford.

[8] Jovanovic T, Booth TH (2002) Improved species climatic profiles A report for the RIRDC/L&W Australia/FWPRDC/ MDBC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program. RIRDC Publication No 02/095, Canberra.

Internet links

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales:

Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food: