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ssp.loxophleba

ssp.supralaevis

ssp. lissophloia

buds, fruits

Natural populations

Eucalyptus loxophleba has four subspecies [1,2]:

Flowering and seeds

Flowering is during August to December [1,3]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following spring. Seed viability ranges from about 680 viable seeds per gram in subsp. loxophleba to about 110 seeds per gram in subsp. gratiae [3]. The seeds start to germinate in about 5 days if grown at 25°C with no pretreatment required.

Cultivation and uses

Natural populations of this species occur across a region that is affected by dryland salinity. While all four subspecies have a role to play in the remediation of dryland salinity in this region, subsp. lissophloia has been more widely cultivated because of its potential as an oil mallee species [4,5]. This potential is currently being evaluated by the oil mallee industry. Subsp. lissophloia has also been introduced to the eastern States in planting for carbon sequestration [6]. In the past, the wood of subsp. loxophleba was used for wheelwrighting and similar work, but today availability is limited [1].

Key descriptors:

Subsp. loxophleba:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 550-750 mm
Mean annual temperature: 15-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 30-35 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 4-6 °C
Altitude: 100-350 metres
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, light to medium clay (35-50% clay) or loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in texture: clayey
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate

Subsp. lissophloia:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 250-350 mm
Mean annual temperature: 15-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 28-35 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 4-6 °C
Altitude: 220-450 metres
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5), neutral (6.5-7.5) or alkaline (greater than 7.5)
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in texture: sand
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: mallee less than 5 m tall, with multiple stems from or near ground level
Carbon sequestration potential: low
Uses
Specialty products: leaves are a source of cineole

Subsp. gratiae:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 300-400 mm
Mean annual temperature: 9-24 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 32-33 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 4-5 °C
Altitude: 250-320 metres
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam or loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in texture: sand
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen mallee less than 5 m tall with multiple stems from or near ground level
Carbon sequestration potential: low

Subsp. supralaevis:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 350-650 mm
Mean annual temperature: 18-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 32-35 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 5-6 °C
Altitude: 100-350 metres
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in texture: sand
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate

Key descriptors in common:
Climate parameters
Rainfall distribution pattern: winter
Frosts (approx. no. per year): up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant or known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Soil factors
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm) or moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or non-saline
Biological traits under cultivation
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: moderate
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding; lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep or shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites or sandy sites
Shade tolerance: grows best in full sunlight
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Uses
Potential farm use: shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production,r pollen has value for apiculture
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), high quality fuelwood, speciality timber for quality furniture
Potentially undesirable attributes
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[4]CRC for Plant-based Management of Dryland Salinity online: http://www.crcsalinity.com/documents/uploads/FloraSearch.pdf

[5] Hobbs TJ, Bennell M, Huxtable D, Bartle J, Neumann C, George N, O'Sullivan W (2006) 'FloraSearch Agroforestry Species and Regional Industries: Low rainfall farm forestry options for southern Australia.' A report for the Joint Venture Agroforestry Program and CRC for Plant-based Management of Dryland Salinity. RIRDC Publication No 06/

[6] CO2 Australia online: http://www.co2australia.com.au/

Internet links

CRC for Plant-based Management of Dryland Salinity: http://www.crcsalinity.com/documents/uploads/FloraSearch.pdf 

FloraBase Western Australian Herbarium: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au

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