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Karlgarin, WA  

Die Hardy Ranges, WA

bark

buds, fruits

Natural populations

Eucalyptus longicornis is widespread in the Avon Wheatbelt and Coolgardie regions of Western Australia, extending from near Kellerberin and Wickepin in the west, to near Norseman in the east [1,2]. This species is a tree up to 25 m tall with a disinctive crown of glossy green leaves crowded towards the end of the branches. Its habitat is on lower parts of the terrain, on fine-textured calcareous loams that have clay at depth.

Flowering and seeds

Eucalyptus longicornis flowers from December to Feburary [1,3]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following summer. There are about 200 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 10 days if grown at 15°C with no pretreatment required [3].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus longicornis is a tall tree with potential to be cultivated on highly alkaline, clayey soils, including saline tyes. It rates highly as an ornamental and as a shelterbelt species and is useful for apiculture. In the past, the wood of this species was used in the mining industry as a source of timber and fuelwood [1]. The fine-textured, reddish to dark red-brown wood has considerable potential for use in high value furniture and craftwood.

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 250-520 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: winter
Mean annual temperature: 15-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 28-35 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 4-6 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 220-500 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Wind: known or has attributes to make an excellent windbreak
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, duplex texture contrast soils, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay) or light to medium clay (35-50% clay)
Soil pH reaction: alkaline (greater than 7.5)
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  poorly to imperfectly drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: alkalinity
Extremes in texture: clayey
Salinity: moderate (-8 dS m-1) or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-25 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: moderate
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding; lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep or shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Windbreak potential: excellent (known or has good attributes)
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate to high
Uses
Potential farm use: excellent windbreak, good for fence posts, good ornamental attributes or shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production or pollen has value for apiculture
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), flooring (including parquetry), heavy construction, high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, panelling, posts (including fencing), speciality timber for quality furniture, speciality wood valued for musical instruments
Potentially undesirable attributes
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

Internet links

FloraBase Western Australian Herbarium: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/search/quick?PHPSESSID=a37d2be3af60909781af5d759edb6cd0&q= eucalyptus+longicornis

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