Bulladelah, NSW

Coffs Harbour, NSW

Gympie, Qld

Natural populations

Eucalyptus grandis extends north from near Newcastle in New South Wales to around Bundaberg in Queensland [1,2]. From there it extends north in scattered disjunct populations, but becomes more common in the wet tropics of northern Queensland. This is a tall to very tall forest tree usually 45–55 m in height with exceptional specimens attaining over 75 m in height. This species occurs on flats or lower slopes of deep, fertile valleys or often fringing rainforests and prefers moist, well-drained, deep, loamy soils of alluvial or volcanic origin [1].

Flowering and seeds

This species flowers during April to May [1,3,4]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following autumn. In natural stands this species produces abundant seed capsules after a number of intervening poor seed years. There are about 670 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 5 days if grown at 25°C with no pretreatment required [4].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus grandis is a large, fast growing, non-lignotuberous tree. When grown in favourable environments E. grandis is one of the most productive plantation eucalypts [6]. There are well over million hectares in plantations worldwide which provide plywood, particleboard, paper pulp, charcoal and fuelwood. In Australia it is mainly harvested from natural stands for panelling, sawn building timber, flooring, joinery, furniture and general construction [1]. This species is also has some value for apiculture [3] and has been ranked as being slightly salt tolerant [5]. Provenance variation in growth performance, frost tolerance and climate matching details have been documented [6,7].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 725-3500 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer, uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 12-25 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 22-34 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 0-16 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): frost free or more or less frost free or up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 0-600 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be drought sensitive
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Wind: tolerates salt-laden coastal winds
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay), light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5), neutral (6.5-7.5) or alkaline (greater than 7.5)
Drainage: well-drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity or alkalinity
Extremes in texture: clayey or sand
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 25-55 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: fast
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding
Root system: moderate to deep
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites or sandy sites
Windbreak potential: tolerates salty coastal winds
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: high
Potential farm use: good ornamental attributes or shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production or pollen has value for apiculture
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Wood products: pulpwood (wood chips for paper pulp) or rayon, boat building, boxes, crates, flooring (including parquetry), heavy construction, high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, panelling, poles (building, transmission, piling), speciality timber for quality furniture


[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Clemson A (1985) Honey and Pollen Flora. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

[4] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at  Accessed March 2008]

[5] Marcar NE, Crawford DF (2004) Trees for Saline Landscapes. RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra.

[6] Eldridge K, Davidson J, Harwood C, Wyk Gv (1993) Eucalypt Domestication and Breeding. Clarendon, Oxford.

[7] Jovanovic T, Booth TH (2002) Improved species climatic profiles. A report for the RIRDC/L&W Australia/FWPRDC/ MDBC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program. RIRDC Publication No 02/095, Canberra.

Internet links

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales: