Otways, Vic.

plantation, SA

Natural populations

Eucalyptus globulus occurs mainly along the east coast of Tasmania, including Bruny Island [1,2]. There are small populations on Flinders, King and Cape Barren Islands in Bass Strait. On the mainland it occurs in the Strzelecki Ranges-Wilsons Promontory region of Victoria. Stands in the Otway Ranges and isolated stands on the west coast of Tasmania are considered to be 3-fruited intergrades with its close relatives [3]. This species is a medium-sized tree 15–20 m tall or a tall tree to 70 m in height. On Flinders and King Islands its height is considerably reduced. The habitat of E. globulus is gently undulating subcoastal hills or in protected valleys on good quality loams but on near coastal sites soils are sandy [1].

Flowering and seeds

Eucalyptus globulus flowers from September to December [1,4]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following summer. There are about 70 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 5 days if grown at 25°C with no pretreatment required [4].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus globulus is a fast growing tree that has become one of the most common hardwood plantation eucalypts in Australia [1,5,6]. Provenance variation among populations  of this species and its climate preferences have been well documented [6,8]. It mainly grown as a source of pulpwood fibre for paper production. Large plantations have been established for this purpose in southern parts of Australia, particularly in the south west of Western Australia, the 'Green Triangle' in South Australia, and in parts of Victoria and Tasmania. In Western Australia, the Forest Products Commission establishes pulp plantations of this species in partnership with local land owners [7]—for further information on this industry in other parts of Australia can be accessed from the Internet Links below.

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 600-1500 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 4-18 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 13-29 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: -1-12 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): frost free or more or less frost free, up to 20 or greater than 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C) or severe or heavy (greater than -5°C)
Altitude: 0-540 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be drought sensitive
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range or tolerates heavy frosts colder than -5°C
Wind: tolerates salt-laden coastal winds
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, light to medium clay (35-50% clay) or loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 15-70 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: fast
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding; lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Windbreak potential: tolerates salty coastal winds
Wood density: low (less than 600 kg/cubic metre) or mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: high
Potential farm use: excellent windbreak or shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture or leaves are a source of cineole
Wildlife value: a critical food source for at least one species or flowers are especially attractive to birds
Wood products: pulpwood (wood chips for paper pulp) or rayon,  boat building, flooring (including parquetry), heavy construction, panelling, poles (building, transmission, piling), railway sleepers, wood composites
Potentially undesirable attributes
Susceptibility to disease or predation: foliage highly susceptible to insect predation or pathogenic leaf diseases or susceptible to stem girdling by parrots
Weediness: high potential based on its biology



[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Dutkowski GW, Potts BM (1999). Geographic Patterns of Genetic Variation in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus and a Revised Racial Classification. Australian Journal of Botany, 47: 237-263.

[4] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at  Accessed March 2008]

[5] Marcar NE, Crawford DF (2004) Trees for Saline Landscapes. RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra.

[6] Eldridge K, Davidson J, Harwood C, Wyk Gv (1993) Eucalypt Domestication and Breeding. Clarendon, Oxford.

[7] Forest Products Commission Western Australia website:

[8] Jovanovic T, Booth TH (2002) Improved species climatic profiles. A report for the RIRDC/L&W Australia/FWPRDC/ MDBC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program. RIRDC Publication No 02/095, Canberra.

Internet links

Australian National Botanic Gardens:

Forest Products Commission of Western Australia website:

Primary Industries and Resources South Australia: [Search for a history of eucalypt plantations in the green triangle region]

Tasmanian Government:

Victorian Government:

Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food:  [Search site as several documents may relate to this species.]