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Hancocks Lookout, SA

Wanilla, SA

buds,fruits

Natural populations

Eucalyptus cladocalyx is native to South Australia where is has a disjunct occurrence in three main regions: in the southern Flinders Ranges, the northern side of Kangaroo Island and the eastern side of Eyre Peninsula in a number of small areas between Coffin Bay and the Cleve Hills west of Cowell [1,2]. On the Eyre Peninsula it is a small to medium-sized tree, around 8-15 m in height and up to 0.4 m dbh, while in the Flinders Ranges and on Kangaroo Island it sometimes attains 35 m in height with a dbh of 1-1.5 m. In the Flinders Ranges and on Eyre Peninsula E. cladocalyx occurs on the upper slopes and summits of rocky ridgetops, while Kangaroo Island occurrences are in proximity to watercourses. The soils are skeletal or shallow in the former, derived from ironstone or quartzite, and deeper alluvial types, derived from ironstone or limestone in the latter [1].

Flowering and seeds

Eucalyptus cladocalyx flowers during January to April [1,3,4]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following summer. There are about 150 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 5 days if grown at 20°C with no pretreatment required [4].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus cladocalyx is a commonly planted tree across southern Australia as an amenity plant, as a windbreak or shelterbelt species, or for timber and firewood production [1]. It is drought tolerant and adaptable to a wide range of soil and climate types [5,6]. The susceptibility of seedlings to frost limits its success in some areas. The wood of E. cladocalyx has moderate strength and durability and in the past has been used for furniture, flooring, panelling, firewood, poles, posts, general construction and railway sleepers [1]. The wood is termite resistant. There is substantial regional provenance variation for growth habit in this species. Seeds sourced from the Eyre Peninsula grow to a maximum of 15 m tall and have a spreading crown. This form is often used on farms as a sheterbelt for stock and is often referred to as var. nana. Seed sourced from Flinders Ranges or Kangaroo Island have the potential to grow into tall 25-30 m trees and the potential of this form is the focus of the ALRTIG project [7].

Key descriptors:

Flinders Ranges-Kangaroo Island provenances:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 450-650 mm
Altitude: 0-600 metres
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree up to 25-30 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: high
Wood products: heavy construction, high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, poles (building, transmission, piling), posts (including fencing), railway sleepers, speciality timber for quality furniture, termite resistant

Eyre Peninsula provenances:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 400-450 mm
Altitude: 50-250 metres
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree to 15 m tall
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate
Potential farm use: excellent windbreak, good for fence posts, good ornamental attributes or shelterbelt or shade for stock
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant or ideal maintenance free street tree

Key descriptors in common:
Climate parameters
Rainfall distribution pattern: winter
Mean annual temperature: 12-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 23-34 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 1-11 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant or known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Wind: known or has attributes to make an excellent windbreak or tolerates salt-laden coastal winds
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, duplex texture contrast soils, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay), light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: 1. acidic (less than 6.5), 2. neutral (6.5-7.5) or 3. alkaline (greater than 7.5)
Soil depth: 1. skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm) or 2. moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity or alkalinity
Salinity: moderate (-8 dS m-1) or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: fast
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding
Root system: moderate to deep
Erosion control potential: excellent for sandy sites
Windbreak potential: excellent (known or has good attributes), tolerates salty coastal winds
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Uses
Potential farm use: excellent windbreak, good for fence posts, good ornamental attributes, shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production or pollen has value for apiculture
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Potentially undesirable attributes
Foliage: cases of stock poisoning have been reported
Weediness: high potential based on its biology

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Clemson A (1985) Honey and Pollen Flora. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

[4] Gunn BV (2001). Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[5] Jovanovic T, Booth TH (2002) Improved species climatic profiles. A report for the RIRDC/L&W Australia/FWPRDC/ MDBC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program. RIRDC Publication No 02/095, Canberra.

[6] Marcar NE, Crawford DF (2004) Trees for Saline Landscapes. RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra.

[7] Harwood CE, Bird R, Butcher T, Bush D, Jackson T, Johnson I, Stackpole D and Underdown M (2005) Australian Low Rainfall Tree Improvement Group (ALRTIG) Update of hardwood breeding strategies, A report for the RIRDC/Land & Water Australia/FWPRDC/MDBC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program RIRDC Publication No 05/023 RIRDC Project No. CSF-62A. Available from the RIRDIC website at http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/AFT/05-023.pdf

Internet links

Victorian Department of Primary Industry: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/ [Search site as several documents may relate to this species]

Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food: http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/ [Search site as several documents may relate to this species, eg, http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/content/lwe/vegt/trees/fs03600.pdf http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/content/fcp/sc/tree/fn060_2004.pdf]

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