Eucalyptus camaldulensissubsp. simulata is a riverine tree that occurs along rivers in the Cape York Peninsula region of north Queensland with a southern outlier west of Townsville [1,2,3]. Tallest trees are up to 30 m in height and grow on riverine sandy loams and clays. Recent morphological and genetic studies of E. camaldulensis have delineated a number of subspecies that show a broad geographic replacement pattern throughout its range [1,2].
Flowering and seeds
This subspecies flowers during July to November but timing varies considerably among populations . Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following summer but may shed seed earlier in some areas. There are about 600 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 5 days if grown at 25-30°C with no pretreatment required .
Cultivation and uses
Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. simulata has been cultivated in a number of tropical countries, particularly in South East Asia. Despite being a strictly riparian tree in natural populations, under cultivation it grows well on a wide range of recharge sites. It is a fast growing, readily established and has potential for firewood, timber and pulpwood production. Demand for seed from this subspecies has increased markedly as a result of its performance in trials involving range-wide provenances of E. camaldulensis (based on despatch records of CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre).
Mean annual rainfall: 900-1000 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer
Mean annual temperature: 22-28 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 31-32 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 15-18 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): frost free or more or less frost free
Altitude: 20-420 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Texture: clay loam, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay), light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage: well-drained or seasonally waterlogged
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: clayey or sand
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: drainage may be sluggish at times
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree > 20 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: fast
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding; lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites or sandy sites
Shade tolerance: grows best in full sunlight
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: high
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant
Wood products: heavy construction, high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, poles (building, transmission, piling), speciality timber for quality furniture
 Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
 Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
 Brooker MIH and Kleinig DA (1994) Field Guide to Eucalypts, Volume 3. Bloomings Books, Melbourne.
 Butcher PA, McDonald MW and Bell JC (in press) Congruence between environmental parameters, morphology and genetic structure in Australia’s most widely distributed eucalypt, Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Tree Genetics and Genomes.
 McDonald MW, Brooker MIH (in prep.) A taxonomic revision of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.
 Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf Accessed March 2008]
Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research (Euclid sample): http://www.cpbr.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/euclid3/euclidsample/html/Eucalyptus_camaldulensis_subsp._simulata.htm