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Maranoa River, Qld

Meteor Creek, Qld

buds

seedling

Natural populations

Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of Australia's most widespread eucalypts. Recent morphological and genetic studies have delineated a number of subspecies that show a broad geographic replacement pattern throughout its range [1,2]. Subsp. acuminata is a riverine tree that is widespread in Queensland, extending from the Cape York Peninsula region in the north, to the upper catchments of rivers systems of the Great Dividing Range in the south. Several southern outliers occur in Narrabri area in northern New South Wales. Tallest trees are 30 m in height and grow on a wide range of riverine soil types that range from sandy loams to clays.

Flowering and seeds

This subspecies flowers over a latitudinal cline. In northern parts of its range it flowers during August-September and in the south of its range during October-November. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following summer but may shed seed earlier in northern areas. There are about 600 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 5 days is grown at 25-30°C with no pretreatment required [3].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. acuminata has been cultivated (often under the name E. camaldulensis var. obtusa) in a number of tropical countries, particularly in South East Asia. Despite being a strictly riparian tree in natural populations, under cultivation it grows well on a wide range of recharge sites. It is a fast growing, readily established and has potential for firewood, timber and pulpwood production. The Petford or Emu Creek provenance from north Queensland represents this subspecies and is one of the most widely grown and sought-after provenances of tropical E. camaldulensis. This provenance has outperformed numerous other provenances of E. camaldulensis sens. lat. over many years, on numerous sites and in many tropical countries [4].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 500-1200 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer
Mean annual temperature: 10-32 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 31-37 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 5-15 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): frost free or more or less frost free or up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 30-500 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay), light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage: 1. well-drained or 3. seasonally waterlogged
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: clayey or sand
Salinity: moderate (-8 dS m-1), nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: drainage may be sluggish at times
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall, tree > 20 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: fast
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding; lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites or excellent for sandy sites
Shade tolerance: grows best in full sunlight
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: high
Uses
Potential farm use: good ornamental attributes or shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture
Traditional Aboriginal uses: implements/artefacts
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), heavy construction, high quality fuelwood, poles (building, transmission, piling), speciality timber for quality furniture

References

[1] Butcher PA, McDonald MW and Bell JC (in press) Congruence between environmental parameters, morphology and genetic structure in Australia’s most widely distributed eucalypt, Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Tree Genetics and Genomes.

[2] McDonald MW, Brooker MIH (in prep.) A taxonomic revision of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.

[3] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[4] Eldridge K, Davidson J, Harwood C, Wyk Gv (1993) Eucalypt Domestication and Breeding. Clarendon, Oxford.

Internet links

Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research (Euclid sample): http://www.cpbr.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/euclid3/euclidsample/html/Eucalyptus_camaldulensis_subsp._simulata.htm

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