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Whiporie, NSW

Towoomba, Qld

buds, fruits

Natural populations

Corymbia henryi occurs in coastal and subcoastal northern New South Wales from near Grafton, north to the Brisbane-Towoomba region in south east Queensland [1,2]. This species attains about 35 m in height and grows on coastal plains and adjacent foothills. Soils are sandy loams and clays derived from granite or shale [1].

Flowering and seeds

This species flowers during May to September [1,3]. Seed capsules are held on the tree in an indehiscent state for most of the year. There are about 100 viable seeds per gram [3]. A pretreatment of the seeds to induce germination is not required, however, inhibitors in the seed coat that delay germination are suspected. Leaching or soaking the seeds in large volumes of water will improve germination response. The seeds start to germinate in about 5 days if grown at 25-30°C [3].

Cultivation and uses

Like its close relative C. maculata , this species has attractive smooth, mottled bark which makes it a desirable as an ornamental. Under cultivation it has potential as a farm-forestry species in the 500-800 mm annual rainfall zone [4] and in areas well beyond its natural range [5]. It is susceptible to frosts during the early establishment phase. The wood of this species has similar properties to C. maculata being strong, durable and used for a wide range of purposes, such as construction timber, flooring and panelling [1].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 950-1100 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer or uniform
Mean annual temperature: 18-21 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 29-31 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 6-9 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): frost free or more or less frost free or up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 30-120 metres
Tolerance of climate extremes
Drought: known to be drought sensitive or known to be moderately drought tolerant
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Wind: tolerates salt-laden coastal winds
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay), light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm) or moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: clayey or sand
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree, 10-35 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: fast or moderate
Coppicing ability: vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding; lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep, shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites or excellent for sandy sites
Windbreak potential: tolerates salty coastal winds
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: high
Uses
Potential farm use: good for fence posts, good ornamental attributes, shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant
Wildlife value: a critical food source for at least one species, flowers are especially attractive to birds
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), flooring (including parquetry), heavy construction, high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, light construction, panelling, poles (building, transmission, piling), posts (including fencing), railway sleepers, speciality timber for quality furniture, wood composites
Potentially undesirable attributes
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[4] Harwood CE, Bird R, Butcher T, Bush D, Jackson T, Johnson I, Stackpole D and Underdown M (2005) Australian Low Rainfall Tree Improvement Group (ALRTIG) Update of hardwood breeding strategies, A report for the RIRDC/Land & Water Australia/FWPRDC/MDBC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program RIRDC Publication No 05/023 RIRDC Project No. CSF-62A. [Available from the RIRDIC website at http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/AFT/05-023.pdf Accessed 24/02/2008]

[5] Jovanovic T, Booth TH (2002) Improved species climatic profiles. A report for the RIRDC/L&W Australia/FWPRDC/ MDBC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program. RIRDC Publication No 02/095, Canberra.

Internet links

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Corymbia~henryi

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