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Natural populations

Acacia deanei has two subspecies [1,2,3,4]:

Both subspecies are mainly 2-4 m tall and grow on plains, slopes and tablelands, often near watercourses, in gullies or on stony hillsides, and on a wide range of soil types.

Flowering and seeds

This species often flowers throughout the year, especially during March to August; pods mature mainly during October to March or sometimes later [1,3,4,5]. There are about 45 viable seeds per gram [4]. Nicking or boiling the seeds in water for a minute at 100°C is required to induce germination. The seeds start to germinate in about 5 days if grown at 25°C [4].

Cultivation and uses

Acacia deanei is a fast growing, nitrogen-fixing shrub that has the potential to play a valuable role in catchment protection [1]. It is relatively drought and cold tolerant; its pollen has value in apiculture [6].

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 500-700 mm

Rainfall distribution pattern: summer, uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 7-24 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 32-34 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 3-5 °C
Frosts per year: up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C) or heavy (greater than -5°C)
Altitude: 100-1000 metres
Tolerance of climate extremes
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant
Fire: killed by damaging fire does not regenerate foliage
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range or tolerates heavy frosts colder than -5°C
Soil factors

Texture: clay loam, duplex texture contrast soils, light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm) or moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage: well-drained
Salinity: non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: sand
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation

Habit: evergreen, multi-stemmed from or near ground level or shrub or small tree less than 5 m tall
Longevity: short-lived less than 15 years
Coppicing ability: nil or negligible
Growth rate: fast
Root system: shallow and spreading, fixes nitrogen via root symbiot
Shade tolerance: grows best in full sunlight
Erosion control potential: excellent for sandy sites
Wood density: low (less than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: low
Uses

Potential farm use: good ornamental attributes
Specialty products: pollen has value in apiculture
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant
Traditional Aboriginal uses: seeds/fruits eaten
Potentially undesirable attributes
Fire sensitivity: killed by severe fires (seeder)
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants
Foliage: cases of stock poisoning have been reported
Weediness: high potential based on its biology

References

[1] Doran JC, Turnbull JW (eds.) (1997) Australian Trees and Shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra [ACIAR books online: http://www.aciar.gov.au/publication/MN024]

[2] Maslin BR (coord.) (2001) WATTLE: Acacias of Australia CD-ROM, Australian Biological Resources Study/CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Cunningham GM, Mulham WE, Milthorpe PL, Leigh JH (1992) Plants of Western New South Wales, Inkata Press, Port Melbourne, Victoria.

[4] Tame T (1992) Acacias of New South Wales. Kangaroo Press, Sydney.

[5] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[6] Clemson A (1985) Honey and Pollen Flora. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Internet links

Charles Sturt University's Virtual Herbarium: http://www.csu.edu.au/herbarium/acacdeanspdean_sws.html

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Acacia~deanei

World Wide Wattle: http://www.worldwidewattle.com/speciesgallery/

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