ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

Lake Indoon, WA

Perth, WA

Natural populations

Eucalyptus rudis is endemic to southwestern Western Australia extending from Geraldton region to the south coast, and as far east as the Pallinup River northeast of Albany [1,2]. A minor variant, subsp. cratyantha, extends from the Mandurah-Pinjarra area south to Cape Naturaliste, and differs in having larger fruits than the typical form. This is usually a riparian species inhabiting riverbanks, diffuse seasonal creeks, fringing lakes or swampy areas. Populations sometimes extend to terrain adjacent to watercourses. Eucalyptus rudis is usually 10–25 m tall tree with oldest trees developing a substantial girth. Soils are often heavy-textured with clay at depth and drainage may be poor. Crowns of adult trees are notable for being partily defoliated for long periods due to insect predation [1]. In the north of its range there is a gradual transition to trees that have smooth bark. These populations represent hybrid intergrades with E. camaldulensis.

Flowering and seeds

This species flowers mainly during September to November [1,3]. Seed capsules persist on trees until at least the following spring. There are about 650 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 5 days if grown at 20-25°C with no pretreatment required [3].

Cultivation and uses

Eucalyptus rudis is a relatively fast-growing species with potential for remediation of areas affected by moderate levels of salinity and waterlogging [4]. Natural stands have value for apiculture as a source pollen and produce light amber honey [5]. This species is currently being assessed for its potential as a fast-growing source of biomass for bioenergy and reconstituted wood products in the south west of Western Australia [6]. A major limitation of its use in this role could be limited by its suseptibility to seasonal defoliation by insects.

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 450-1100 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: winter
Mean annual temperature: 12-18 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 26-33 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 5-10 °C
5. Frosts (approx. no. per year): frost free or more or less frost free or up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 0-380 metres
Tolerance of extremes in climate
Fire: regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Wind: tolerates salt-laden coastal winds
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, heavy clay (greater than 50% clay), light to medium clay (35-50% clay) or loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  poorly to imperfectly drained or seasonally waterlogged
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: clayey
Salinity: moderate (-8 dS m-1) or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: drainage may be sluggish at times
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: fast or moderate
Coppicing ability: 1. vigorous, responds to pruning, pollarding; lignotuberous
Root system: moderate to deep
Erosion control potential: excellent for clayey sites
Windbreak potential: tolerates salty coastal winds
Wood density: low (less than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate (mod. wood density, growth, biomass)
Uses
Potential farm use: excellent windbreak or shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: flowers produce nectar for honey production, pollen has value for apiculture
Wildlife value: flowers are especially attractive to birds
Wood products: high quality fuelwood
Potentially undesirable attributes
Susceptibility to disease or predation: foliage highly susceptible to insect predation or pathogenic leaf diseases

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Slee AV, Connors J, Brooker MIH, Duffy SM, West JG (2006) EUCLID Eucalypts of Australia. Third Edition CD ROM Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[3] Gunn BV (2001). Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[4] Marcar NE, Crawford DF (2004) Trees for Saline Landscapes. RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra.

[5] Chippendale GM (1973) Eucalypts of the Western Australian Goldfields (and the Adjacent Wheatbelt). (AGPS: Canberra).

[6] Hobbs TJ, Bennell M, Huxtable D, Bartle J, Neumann C, George N, O'Sullivan W (2006) 'FloraSearch Agroforestry Species and Regional Industries: Low rainfall farm forestry options for southern Australia.' A report for the Joint Venture Agroforestry Program and CRC for Plant-based Management of Dryland Salinity. RIRDC Publication No 06/

Internet links

FloraBase WesternAustralian Herbarium: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/search/quick?PHPSESSID=a37d2be3af60909781af5d759edb6cd0&q= eucalyptus+rudis

Top