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Bimbi SF, NSW

Boggabri, NSW

Natural populations

Callitris glaucophylla is widespread across inland Australia south of the Tropic of Capricorn [1]. It extends from central Queensland to Victoria, over most of western New South Wales, across South Australia and in southern parts of the Northern Territory and central to southern Western Australia. This species has a symetric, cone-like habit, and grows up to 18 m tall. This species grows on gently undulating to rolling topography, but extends to lower slopes and rocky hills, which act as fire refugia, in some areas [2]. The most common soils have a sandy or loamy surface, often with clay loam at depth [1].

Flowering and seeds

Cones persist on trees for several seasons. There are about 15 viable seeds per gram; seeds start to germinate in about 15 days if grown at 25°C with no pretreatment required [3].

Cultivation and uses

Callitris glaucophylla is a fire sensitive, native conifer that is frost and drought tolerant but is rarely cultivated. The wood of this species is valued for its durability, termite resistance and has been used as fencing, flooring, panelling and furniture [1,4]. This is an important commercial forestry species in New South Wales and Queensland based on timber harvested from natural stands.

Key descriptors:

Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 150-750 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer, uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 15-27 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 28-32 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 1-5 °C
Frosts (approx. no. per year): up to 20 or greater than 20
Frost intensity: heavy (greater than -5°C)
Altitude: 90-750 metres
Tolerance of climate extremes
Drought: known to be moderately drought tolerant or known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: killed by damaging fire does not regenerate foliage
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Wind: known or has attributes to make an excellent windbreak
Soil factors
Texture: clay loam, light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5), neutral (6.5-7.5) or alkaline (greater than 7.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm) or 2. moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Drainage:  well-drained
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or 3. non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity or alkalinity
Extremes in texture: sand
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen tree 10-20 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years)
Growth rate: slow
Coppicing ability: nil or negligible
Root system: moderate to deep or shallow and spreading
Erosion control potential: excellent for sandy sites
Windbreak potential: excellent (known or has good attributes)
Wood density: low (less than 600 kg/cubic metre) or mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: moderate (mod. wood density, growth, biomass)
Uses
Potential farm use: excellent windbreak, good for fence posts, good ornamental attributes, shelterbelt or shade for stock
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant, suitable as a screen or hedge
Wood products: flooring (including parquetry), heavy construction, high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, light construction, panelling, posts (including fencing), speciality timber for quality furniture, termite resistant
Potentially undesirable attributes
Fire sensitivity: killed by severe fires (seeder)
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants

References

[1] Boland DJ, Brooker MIH, Chippendale GM, Hall N, Hyland BPM, Johnson RD, Kleinig DA, McDonald MW, Turner JD (2006) Forest Trees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

[2] Cunningham GM, Mulham WE, Milthorpe PL, Leigh JH (1992) Plants of Western New South Wales, Inkata Press.

[3] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, Yarralumla, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

[4] Taylor D, King J, Swift S, Hopewell G, Debuse V, Roberts S and Cotter D (2005) The Influence of Forest Management on Sawn Timber Recovery and Value in Cypress Pine A report for the RIRDC/Land & Water Australia/FWPRDC/MDBC Joint Venture Agroforestry Program RIRDC Publication No 04/184 RIRDC Project No PN 99.2005. RIRDIC website: http://www.rirdc.gov.au/reports/AFT/04-184sum.html [Accessed 24/02/2008]

Internet links

Alice Spings Town Council: http://www.alicesprings.nt.gov.au/community/environment/recommended_native_plants

eFloraSA Electronic Flora of South Australia:

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Callitris~glaucophylla

Victorian Department of Primary Industry: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/ Note: search site - several documents relate to this species.

Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callitris_glaucophylla

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