Acacia ligulata is widespread across most arid and semi-arid Australia. It is a common species on inland and coastal sand dunes and a range of other sites such as floodplains, lower hill slopes and fringing salt lakes [1,2,3,4]. Acacia ligulata is a bushy shrub normally 1-2 m tall but may be up to 5 m tall on some sites.
Flowering and seeds
Flowers during August to November depending on location [2,3,4]. Pods mature about two months later . There are about 20 viable seeds per gram . Nicking or boiling the seeds in water for a minute at 100°C is required for germination. The seeds start to germinate in about 3 days if grown at 20-25°C .
Cultivation and uses
This species tolerates some of the hottest and driest climates in Australia. It has fast initial growth and is mainly used for sand stabilisation .
Mean annual rainfall: 150-700 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern summer or uniform
Mean annual temperature: 15-28 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 32-38 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: 5-10 °C
Frosts per year: frost free or more or less frost free, up to 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C) or heavy (greater than -5°C)
Altitude: 0-700 metres
Tolerance of climate extremes
Drought: known to be tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: killed by damaging fire does not regenerate foliage or regenerates foliage after damaging fire
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Wind: tolerates salt-laden coastal winds
Texture: loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: neutral (6.5-7.5) or alkaline (greater than 7.5)
Soil depth: moderate to deep (30-100 cm or greater)
Salinity: slightly to moderately saline or non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: highly acidity or alkalinity
Extremes in texture: sand
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils or slight (2-4 dS m-1)
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils
Biological traits under cultivation
Habit: evergreen, multi-stemmed from or near ground level, shrub less than 2 m tall or shrub or small tree less than 5 m tall
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years) or short-lived less than 15 years
Growth rate: fast or moderate
Root system: moderate to deep, shallow and spreading, fixes nitrogen via root symbiot, forms root suckers
Erosion control potential: excellent for sandy sites
Shade tolerance: grows best in full sunlight
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: low
Traditional Aboriginal uses: gum or resin (eaten or for adhesives), medicinal or seeds/fruits eaten
Urban use: suitable as a screen or hedge
Wood products: high quality fuelwood
Potentially undesirable attributes
Fire sensitivity: variable - some plants coppice back or killed by severe fires (seeder)
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants
Weediness: high potential based on its biology
 Cowan AR, Maslin BR (2001) Acacia ligulata. Flora of Australia, 11A: 400-01.
 Tame T (1992) Acacias of New South Wales. Kangaroo Press, Sydney.
 Cunningham GM, Mulham WE, Milthorpe PL, Leigh JH (1992) Plants of Western New South Wales, Inkata Press, Port Melbourne, Victoria.
 Whibley DJE, Symon DE (1992) Acacias of South Australia (South Australian Govt Printer, Adelaide).
 Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf Accessed March 2008]
Alice Spings Town Council: http://www.alicesprings.nt.gov.au/community/environment/recommended_native_plants
eFloraSA Electronic Flora of South Australia:http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/texhtml.cgi?form=speciesfacts&family=&genus=Acacia&species=ligulata&iname=&submit=Search
PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Acacia~ligulata
World Wide Wattle: http://www.worldwidewattle.com/speciesgallery/