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Condobolin, NSW

Natural populations

Acacia doratoxylon is widespread across much of central New South Wales, and extends south into Victoria to parts of the upper reaches of the Murray River [1,2,3]. Some of its most eastern occurrences are in the Australian Capital Territory. This species is a small to medium sized tree up to 12 m tall with a dbh up to 35 cm, which favours shallow, well-drained soils on rocky hillsides or ridges.

Flowering and seeds

Flowering in this species occurs during spring, and pods mature over summer [1,4]. There are over 90 viable seeds per gram [4]. Nicking or boiling the seeds in water for a minute at 100°C is required to induce germination. The seeds start to germinate in about 5 days if grown at 25°C [4].

Cultivation and uses

Acacia doratoxylon is a nitrogen-fixing, small tree, which can be grown on well-drained recharge sites and a range of shallow, light-textured soils [1]. It is considered a long-lived, drought and frost tolerant species but relatively slow growing. Its wood has been compared to Blackwood (A. melanoxylon ) in appearance and may have some potential as a speciality furniture timber and for craftwood [1]. This is a relatively long-lived species perhaps reaching 20–30 years old.

Key descriptors:
Climate parameters
Mean annual rainfall: 350-650 mm
Rainfall distribution pattern: summer, uniform or winter
Mean annual temperature: 8-22 °C
Mean max. temperature of the hottest month: 24-35 °C
Mean min. temperature of the coldest month: -2-4 °C
Frosts per year: up to 20 or greater than 20
Frost intensity: light to moderate (0 to -5°C)
Altitude: 50-920 metres
Tolerance of climate extremes
Drought: known to tolerant of protracted droughts
Fire: killed by damaging fire does not regenerate foliage
Frost: tolerates frosts in the 0° to -5°C range
Wind: known or has attributes to make an excellent windbreak

Soil factors

Texture clay loam, light to medium clay (35-50% clay), loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam or sand
Soil pH reaction: acidic (less than 6.5) or neutral (6.5-7.5)
Soil depth: skeletal to shallow (less than 30 cm)
Drainage: well-drained
Salinity: non-saline
Tolerance of adverse soils
Extremes in pH: acidity
Extremes in texture: sand
Salinity: nil - sensitive to saline soils
Soil waterlogging tolerance: nil - sensitive to waterlogged soils

Biological traits under cultivation

Habit: evergreen, tree 5-10 m tall, usually produces a clear trunk
Longevity: moderate to long lived (>15 years) or short-lived less than 15 years
Growth rate: moderate
Coppicing ability: nil or negligible
Root system: shallow and spreading, fixes nitrogen via root symbiot
Erosion control potential: excellent for sandy sites
Windbreak potential: excellent (known or has good attributes)
Wood density: mod. to high (greater than 600 kg/cubic metre)
Carbon sequestration potential: low-moderate

Uses

Potential farm use: excellent windbreak, good ornamental attributes or shelterbelt or shade for stock
Specialty products: apiculture: pollen has value
Traditional Aboriginal uses: implements/artefacts or weapons
Urban use: good as an ornamental or amenity plant, ideal maintenance free street tree or suitable as a screen or hedge
Wood products: craftwood (for turnery etc.), high quality fuelwood, industrial charcoal, light construction or speciality timber for quality furniture
Potentially undesirable attributes
Fire sensitivity: killed by severe fires (seeder)
Growth habit: shallow roots may outcompete adjacent plants
Weediness: high potential based on its biology

References

[1] Maslin, B.R. and McDonald, M.W. (2004) AcaciaSearch-evaluation of Acacia as a woody crop option for southern Australia. Rural Industries Research Development Corporation Publication No. 03/017, Canberra.

[2] Cunningham GM, Mulham WE, Milthorpe PL, Leigh JH (1992) Plants of Western New South Wales, Inkata Press, Port Melbourne, Victoria.

[3] Tame T (1992) Acacias of New South Wales. Kangaroo Press, Sydney.

[4] Gunn BV (2001) Australian Tree Seed Centre Operations Manual. Internal Publication, CSIRO Australian Tree Seed Centre, ACT. [Online at http://www.ensisjv.com/Portals/0/atsc-opmanualcomplete.pdf  Accessed March 2008]

Internet links

Charles Sturt University's Virtual Herbarium: http://www.csu.edu.au/herbarium/acacdora.html

PlantNET National Herbarium of New South Wales: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Acacia~doratoxylon

World Wide Wattle: http://www.worldwidewattle.com/infogallery/utilisation/acaciasearch/pdf/doratoxylon.pdf

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